The U.S. Supreme Court Pink (1942) found that international agreements, which were concluded in law, have the same legal status as treaties and do not require Senate approval. To Reid v. Concealed (1957), the Tribunal, while reaffirming the President`s ability to enter into executive agreements, found that such agreements could not be contrary to existing federal law or the Constitution. As the 45th president, Republican Donald Trump will have the opportunity to review, revise or revoke Obama`s executive orders, as the young Bush did with respect to Clinton and Obama`s instructions regarding Bush`s orders. Executive agreements are often used to circumvent the requirements of national constitutions for treaty ratification. Many nations that are republics with written constitutions have constitutional rules on treaty ratification. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe is based on executive agreements. Presidential executive orders, both historical and contemporary, can usually be found online. Often, commands can be found by the president, date, number or object.
Historical or online archives may offer the text of an order or a PDF file from the entry of the federal register on the order or a PDF file of the White House order. The three presentation formats contain previously identified items and can serve as valuable primary sources. Some excellent online filings of executive orders are Franklin Roosevelt`s orders that prohibit the storage of gold during the Depression, and during World War II, the military authority to limit Japanese and German Americans to guarded camps. The implementation of executive agreements increased considerably after 1939. Prior to 1940, the U.S. Senate had ratified 800 treaties and presidents had concluded 1,200 executive agreements; From 1940 to 1989, during World War II and the Cold War, presidents signed nearly 800 treaties, but concluded more than 13,000 executive treaties. Clinton`s multiple injunctions authorizing preferential treatment for federal contracts on the basis of race or ethnicity in 2000 and authorizing the government to take private property under the Antiquities Act of 1906 (including its hereditary designation of 1.7 million hectares in Utah as a national monument in 1996). In its Blueprint for a New Administration, the Heritage Foundation recommends that Trump set aside certain executive orders and other Obama directives, including guidelines that impose global warming and green energy practices for federal authorities; abandoning work requirements for social assistance recipients; Limit the application of immigration legislation; allow the use of trade union fees for political or lobbying activities; “Dignity and respect” for individuals in gathering information about foreign threats.